Ethernet Cable Wiring

Vipul Lovekar Jan 29, 2019
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Before implementing any network, the network administrator should be aware of the kind of Ethernet cable wiring he is going to use. Having a robust network in any workplace is considered advantageous, and the backbone of such a network is Ethernet cable wiring.
A network administrator must always take care that his designed wiring is compatible with upcoming technologies. Although newer technologies are developed keeping in mind the older systems, but sometimes these newer technologies are developed independently.
In this scenario, the network administrator's wiring design must be able to adapt to the new technology as much as possible.
Ethernet is a type of network technology comparable to local area network (LAN). In computer network protocol design, there is an OSI (Open System Interconnection) reference model, and the entire computer network (world wide web) or any Ethernet (LAN) is governed according to the protocols of this reference model.
There are seven layers in the OSI model. Conceptually similar components (e.g., software, network applications) reside on similar layers (e.g., application layer). Every layer receives services from the layer below it.
The underlying structure of the network is called a network topology. It's simply the arrangement of various network devices in the Ethernet. There are basically five different topologies for Ethernet networks. They are bus, ring, mesh, tree, and star.

Types of Cables

Broadly, there are three types of Ethernet cable. A normal cable, cable categories (CAT 3, CAT 5, CAT 5, CAT 5e, CAT 6, CAT 7), and crossover types. A normal cable is used to connect a computer with other computer networking devices such as a switch or a router.
Ethernet cable categories or the CAT series are defined on the basis of the speed that they can relay. And Ethernet crossover cable in wiring is designed for those devices that do not intend the use of a switch or a hub.

Wiring Chart

Before we understand about the procedure, it's imperative to know about the color code standards. There are two such standards―T568A and T568B. These standards are usually referred to as 'A coding standard' and 'B coding standard'. These standards give the internal arrangement of the cabling wire.
The wire arrangement is true for both the ends of the wire in case of A coding standard. But in case of B coding standard, pin 2 (left hand side) is connected to pin 6 (right hand side). Similarly pin 1, pin 3 and pin 6 (L.H.S.) are connected to pin 3, pin 1 and pin 2. Both the ends of the wire are connected to RJ45 connectors.
Various tools are used to connect the RJ45 connectors to the wire, and these tools are known as crimping tools. The following table shows the T568A and T568B wiring standards.
Pin T568A Wiring Standard
1 White w/Green Stripe
2 Green Stripe
3 White w/Orange Stripe
4 Blue Stripe
5 White w/Blue Stripe
6 Orange Stripe
7 White w/Brown Stripe
8 Brown Stripe
Pin T568B Wiring Standard
1 White w/Orange Stripe
2 Orange Stripe
3 White w/Green Stripe
4 Blue Stripe
5 White w/Blue Stripe
6 Green Stripe
7 White w/Brown Stripe
8 Brown Stripe

How to Wire Ethernet Cable?

1. The length of the wire should not be more than 100 m.
2. Peel off about one inch at one end of the wire. This can be done using a stripper knife.
3. Untwist the internal wire. Peel off about half an inch of the plastic coating of the internal wires. Flatten them in a way there is no space left between them.
4. Hold the RJ45 connector in your other hand with the clip of the connector hanging upside down.
5. Push the wire through the connector till some part of the peeled wires come out. Internal wires should still be flat.
6. Check the order of the wire. (A coding standard or B coding standard)
7. Crimp the RJ45 connector using a crimping tool.
8. Repeat this process for the other end of the wire as well.
Here, some of the fundamentals of Ethernet cable wiring have been illustrated. A network administrator has to follow these guidelines and many other principles while designing an Ethernet. Care must be taken while designing as well as implementing it.
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