Tap to Read ➤

Computer Hardware Basics

Parashar Joshi Nov 7, 2018
In the age of the Internet, you cannot afford to be lagging behind. Here are certain computer hardware basics in a very easy-to-understand manner.
In an age where computers are being used for everything ranging from communication to cooking and from entertainment to education, you simply cannot afford to remain ignorant about it anymore. Change is inevitable. Times change, situations change, and so do we.
Updating our knowledge and skills is a must if we wish to keep up with the world. On that note, here are some computer hardware basics to welcome you into this wonderful technological world.

Basics for Beginners

It is essential to understand the fundamentals of hardware before moving on to any high level technical stuff. A typical computer system has 2 very basic components:
  1. CPU (central processing unit)
  2. monitor.
In order to actually be able to use the system, you input devices, like the keyboard or mouse. Other devices, such as joysticks, game pads, game controllers, etc., also fall into the category of input devices.
The monitor is nothing but an output device (or a display device) whose purpose is to display all the information to the user. Monitors can be categorized as:
  1. CRT (cathode ray tube) monitors
  2. flat screen monitors.
CRT monitors are the box-like monitors that have been around since the last 10-15 years. Flat screen monitors are relatively new, and they too, are of 2 types namely, plasma monitors and LCD monitors. The CPU is the actual functioning unit, i.e., it is the component that is responsible for the actual computing that takes place.
The CPU consists of the following components:
  • Hard drive
  • Motherboard
  • RAM chip
  • Processor
  • Video card
  • Graphics card
  • Sound card
  • Processor and cabinet fans
  • USB ports
  • LAN card
  • CD/DVD drive
  • Floppy disk drive
  • Cables

Hard Drive

It is also referred to as a secondary storage device. In simple terms, it is the place where all of your documents, spreadsheets, pictures, music files, videos, etc., are stored. Hard drives can be internal as well as external.
Internal hard drives are housed within the PC cabinet, whereas external ones are detachable and are connected through a USB port using an external power source. Today, hard drives are available in capacities of up to 2 TB, i.e., a whopping 2,048,000 megabytes of storage space!


It is a square-shaped board that houses all major components, such as the RAM chips, PCI slots, processor, batteries, sound cards, video cards and all other internal circuitry. Motherboards are available in different configurations and designs.


Random Access Memory is the primary storage device of your PC. Although all your software applications are installed and stored in your hard drive, each one of them needs to make use of the RAM when it is being used. More the number or the size of the applications being run, greater is the RAM requirement.


Today, processors are available in many brands and multiple-processing capacities. Intel's Pentium series of processors along with the AMD line of processors happen to be some of the most popular processors in today's market.


These mainly include video cards, sound cards, graphics cards, etc., all of which are installed on the motherboard in their respective slots. They are mainly required for running multimedia applications involving video, audio, and graphical images.
LAN cards and network cards are necessary for networking, i.e., connecting your machine to a local network or to the Internet.


Most cabinets make use of at least two fans - a processor fan and a cabinet fan. Their main purpose is to lower the internal temperature and keep the processing components as cool as possible.

USB Ports

USB ports in simple terms, are the ports, which we use for connecting our MP3 players, digital cameras, flash drives, etc., to our PC. Today, most machines come with a minimum of 4 USB ports, although certain high-end machines can have up to 8 or even 10 USB ports.

CD/DVD Drives

If you wish to run any type of CD or DVD, installing a CD drive or a DVD drive is a must. There are different types of CD/DVD drives available, each offering the user a variety of features and options.

Floppy Drives

Once a common part of each and every desktop machine. However, there are a few situations where using a floppy drive becomes inevitable (and I vouch for that), hence, mentioning them in this list becomes necessary.


Last but not the least, the connecting cables. Internal cables which are used to connect the hard drive, CD/DVD drive, floppy drive, etc. are of two types - a data cable and a power cable.
Each one has a different physical structure and a different function. If you are a newcomer, you should always refer to the manual while going about connecting the different cables.
These were some basics, which were aimed at introducing you to the hardware components of a computer. Though most of these components are constantly being upgraded thanks to rapid technological advances, their fundamental concept nevertheless, continues to remain the same.